On the eve of the approaching centenarian celebration Poland’s independence, it is worth returning to the problems of the social and educational situation of a child with disabilities in the early twentieth century. Today, despite the passage of a hundred years, new solutions are still being sought for family and institutional care for a disabled child and as concerns educational forms and opportunities. It was in that time, in the difficult conditions of building the foundations of Polish statehood that this heavily neglected area became an issue of interest.
The most important aim of the study is to show selected activities: the Government of the IInd Republic of Poland, organizations and institutions as well as outstanding educators aiming at improving the living conditions, education and social image of children with disabilities. The basic source material that served to develop the issue was the "Special School" magazine published in the years 1924-1939, located in the National Library in Warsaw and the literature dealing with this subject.
Human rights provide a way of thinking about man. About a man who regardless of his limitations, is always a main actor of his rights. A man whose life is the highest good and should be given a proper legal protection. Unfortunately, reality provides us every day with many examples of injustice, wickedness and disregard for the highest goods and values with which man lives. The analysis of the problem in the article includes examples of such violations of human rights of people with disabilities in the perspective of Article 2 of the European Convention on the Protection of the Protection of Human Rights and the Fundamental Fundamental Freedoms. Human rights are used here as a tool for thinking about reality and describing specific events. The basic research method used in the text is the case study, focusing on the confrontation of conceptual assumptions with specific cases. Incidentally, the method of exegesis of the legal text in the current of the derivative concept was used, based on a normative conception, proposing a specific interpretation procedure determined precisely by the features of legal texts.
The article concern to social attitudes towards the mentally disabled perpetrators of crimes. Attitudes towards penalties applied to people with mental and intellectual disabilities were examined. The survey was conducted from February to May 2015. The analysis of research indicates the tendency to perceive people mentally or intellectually disturbed as potentially dangerous. In the case of some disorders (e.g. schizophrenia), society tends to postulate lifelong treatment or isolation.
The main intention of my analysis is trying to redefine the scope of help offered people with Alzheimer’s disease. I ask: how can systemic thinking, combining biological, psychological, socio-cultural and holistic aspects, improve the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease? Life practice shows that patients and their caregivers are sometimes held hostage to the narrow specialisations of educated people, doctors and therapists, whose skills only help to survive the inevitable stages of this incurable disease. This topic is very important and serious. It can be proved that there is a close relationship between the methodology of medical sciences, their teaching at the higher education level, attitudes towards patients and preferred therapy.
The main aim of my work is presentation of changes in therapy based on my own reflection and the source literature. The main conclusion is demand towards inclusion of knowledge of other discipline such as sociology, theory of communication, cognitiv science to therapy people with Alzheimer’s disease. I show the role of these areas in the development of therapy for these people.
Hippotherapy is currently one of the most popular methods of supporting children with developmental disorders. So far, however, there is not enough reliable research confirming its effectiveness in the rehabilitation of children with autism spectrum disorders. The aim of this research was to get to know parents’ opinions about the importance of hippotherapy in improving communication of their autistic children. The main research problem was formulated as follows: What are the parents’ opinions about the importance of hippotherapy to improve the communication of autistic children? Parents’ opinions on the importance of hippotherapy for improving verbal communication and expression of emotions in children with autism spectrum disorders were adopted as a dependent variable. The independent variable is the level of the child’s autism symptoms (L1-L3). The results of the research indicate that the examined persons highly evaluate the effectiveness of hippotherapy in the general improvement of children with ASD, although in the sphere of communication they do not notice significant progress in their children.
In the context of the discussion about relations with the Other, or about otherness, there are a mnay factors mentioned that make said discussion possible. The author points to personal dignity that creates „bridges” between humans, and wants to see them in the full truth of their being, their personage and history. Reflection is carried out according to the methods used in the philosophical and ethical sciences; here dominates the hermeneutic attitude, which reveals the depth and meaning of interpersonal relations. Beyond dignity, as well as love and freedom, interpersonal relationships are rather impossible, because they are deprived of what is constitutive for each person – dignity itself.
The problem of subjectivity and the human subject is the point of interest of many scientific disciplines, which makes it nowadays an interdisciplinary dimension, particularly important in contemporary civil society. This society is perceived as a community of free, equal citizens who act together for the common good, with particular emphasis here on the subjectivity of each individual within this group. The paradigm of subjectivity is focused on the recognition of a man as a unique individual with all its strengths and weaknesses, having the right to self-fulfillment and development in integration with other people - any person involved in social life and therefore also a disabled person becomes relevant here. The issue of the subjectivity of persons with disabilities as a necessary condition for rehabilitation and therapy, which significantly increases the chance of its success and effectiveness, is of particular importance.
The subject of this text centers around issues concerning the learning process of children with special developmental and educational needs and possibilities of a constructivist change of the existing educational situation which focuses on shaping the attitude of “homo construens”. In this context, the importance of constructivist learning as a self- -regulatory process in the search for links between existing models of understanding the world and emerging external information was highlighted.
In the educational practice, we continuously tend to experience a shortage in the area of creating learning conditions which would provide pupils with an integral development of all spheres of personality. The task of the school and the teacher is developing in children with special educational needs openness and criticism as a potential of broadening the perception of the world and skills of responsible functioning in the socio-cultural reality.
Higher education institutions use different solutions and support people whose health condition determines their functioning, their ability to meet their student obligations and participate in academic life in different ways. Although the percentage of disabled candidates in a total number of students still remains low, it is satisfying to see that this number is systematically increasing. This tendency is a result of the fact that institutions of higher education started to open up to the needs of disabled candidates - but it is also dependent on noncomformism and educational ambitions of the interested persons themselves. Additional changes can be observed in social attitudes towards disabled people. However, in the environment of the higher education facility, those changes, apart from the approach of the non-disabled students towards the disability of their colleagues, must also concern academic teachers, who are not always mentally and professionally prepared for such cooperation.
The aim of the study was to determine whether aspects of occupational burnout, i.e. psychophysical exhaustion, lack of involvement in relations with pupils, a sense of professional ineffectiveness, and disappointment, are significantly related to the specificity of educational work and care in special education. The degree of intellectual disability of pupils under the teachers’ care was adopted as a differentiating criterion in the analysis.
The objective of the study was also to determine the relationship between coping styles adopted by teachers in stressful situations, i.e. task-oriented, emotion-oriented, and avoidance-oriented coping, with the degree of intellectual disability of pupils adopted as a criterion.
The analysis of the obtained results indicates the existence of a relationship between occupational burnout among special education teachers, and their pupils’ degree of disability. A dependency was observed between the sense of burnout in assessing one’s own competence (sense of ineffectiveness), and the pupil’s degree of intellectual disability, where effectiveness subjectively assessed by teachers decreases as disorders in the level of pupils’ intellectual development and social functioning increase.
The obtained results also indicate task-oriented coping style as dominating among the studied teachers. This strategy dominated in the group who worked with pupils with mild intellectual disability.
The article focuses on an elderly person's caregiver that experiences a lot of dilemmas, strains and difficult situations connected with taking care of and nursing elder people. The dilemmas are especially brought to attention of those who change their position from a student/ apprentice to a worker of such an institution. The article pertains to workshops realized during the process of instructing the students on how to cope with difficult situations connected with this profession. The result of this kind of workshop is forming an ability to support the person we take care of considering the necessity of counteracting the emotional burnout of the caregiver.
Sexuality is one of the most important elements of human functioning. It is connected with human nature, biology, physiology as well as culture, its values and norms. The importance of sexuality in the life of every one of us changes along with our development and is conditioned by our personality, life experiences, libido level and the social roles fulfilled by a person. One of the three taboo areas associated with sexuality in Poland is the taboo regarding the sexuality of disabled people, including people with intellectual disability. The statements and recommendations of the World Health Organization, as well as a number of experts on international congresses are unanimous in giving the right to sexuality to the disabled. This study presents selected medical, psychosocial and legal aspects of the sexuality of the intellectually disabled.
The aim of the article was to present the issue of health education for children and youth with intellectual disabilities. The first part of the text presents the theoretical context of the discussed problem: the assumptions of health education, the existing possibilities of its implementation, and the changing organizational forms. The main part of the article is a critical analysis of the current core curriculum in the scope of the concept addressed to students with intellectual disabilities, in particular its requirements and expected effects. The conclusion was related to habitat health policy for people with disabilities.